distribution of refractive error in children
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Refractive Error Correction SurgeryPDF Int J Med Sci 2010; 7(6):342-353. doi:10.7150/ijms.7.342 Research Paper Refractive Status refractive error hypermetropia and Prevalence of Refractive Errors in Suburban School-age Children Lian-Hong Pi1, Lin Chen1, Qin Liu1, Ning Ke1, Jing refractive error astigmatism Fang1, Shu Zhang1, Jun Xiao1, Wei-Jiang Ye1, Yan Xiong1, Hui Shi1, Zheng-Qin Yin2 1. Department of Ophthalmology, Children's Hospital, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, People's Republic of China2. Southwest Hospital, Southwest http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22344004 Eye Hospital, The Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, People's Republic of China How to cite this article: Pi LH, Chen L, Liu Q, Ke N, Fang J, Zhang S, Xiao J, Ye WJ, Xiong Y, Shi H, Yin ZQ. Refractive Status and Prevalence of Refractive Errors in Suburban School-age Children. Int J Med Sci 2010; 7(6):342-353. doi:10.7150/ijms.7.342. Available from http://www.medsci.org/v07p0342.htm AbstractObjective: http://www.medsci.org/v07p0342.htm This study investigated the distribution pattern of refractive status and prevalence of refractive errors in school-age children in Western China to determine the possible environmental factors. Methods: A random sampling strategy in geographically defined clusters was used to identify children aged 6-15 years in Yongchuan, a socio-economically representative area in Western China. We carried out a door-to-door survey and actual eye examinations, including visual acuity measurements, stereopsis examination, anterior segment and eyeball movements, fundus examinations, and cycloplegic retinoscopy with 1% cyclopentolate. Results: A total of 3469 children living in 2552 households were selected, and 3070 were examined. The distributions of refractive status were positively-skewed for 6-8-year-olds, and negatively-skewed for 9-12 and 13-15-year-olds. The prevalence of hyperopia (≥+2.00 D spherical equivalent [SE]), myopia (≤-0.50 D SE), and astigmatism (≥1.00 diopter of cylinder [DC]) were 3.26%, 13.75%, and 3.75%, respectively. As children's ages increased, the prevalence rate of hyperopia decreased (P<0.001) and that of myopia increased significantly (P<0.001). Children in academically challenging schools had a higher risk of myopia (P<0.001) and astigmatism (≥1.00DC, P =0.04) than those in regular schools. Conclusion: The distribution
among school children in Jhapa, Nepal http://www.journalofoptometry.org/en/refractive-error-among-school-children/articulo/S1888429611700413/ Error refractivo en niños en edad escolar de Jhapa, Nepal Gauri Shankar Shresthaa,, , Digen Sujakhub, Purushottam Joshiba B.P. Koirala Lions Centre for Ophthalmic Studies, Institute of Medicine, Tribhuvan University, Maharajgunj, Kathmandu, Nepalb Mechi Eye Hospital, Birtamod, Jhapa, Nepal Received 11 December refractive error 2010, Accepted 02 January 2011 AbstractPurposeTo evaluate the pattern of refractive errors among school children in Jhapa, Nepal. MethodsA cross-sectional study was designed to evaluate refractive status of 2236 school children in three government schools and a private school. A complete refractive error in eye examination was carried out in all children including slit lamp examination, fundus examination, retinoscopy and subjective refraction. Chi-square test was performed to analyze incidence of refractive error in gender; age groups; type of schools. ResultsOut of 2236 students, refractive error was present in 192 (8.58%). Unaided, presenting, and corrected visual acuity less than 6/12 (0.5) were present in 3.8%, 2.6%, and 0.2% respectively. After refractive correction, visual acuity was significantly improved (χ2=81.3, df=3, p<0.01) to 6/6 in 98% students. Forty-five students (2.01%) were amblyopic. Refractive error was significantly prevalent (χ2=3.707, df=1, p=0.05, ODD=1.3) in male (9.76%) than in female students (7.48%). refractive error was significantly high in private school than government schools (χ2=6.7, df=1, p<0.01) Myopia was the most common type (44.79%) of refrac