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Issues Topics For Authors About Editorial Board Subscriptions June 2009 Volume 50, Issue 6 ‹ Issue › Jump To... Methods Results Discussion Free Clinical and Epidemiologic Research| June uncorrected refractive error definition 2009The Impact of Corrected and Uncorrected Refractive Error on Visual Functioning: The

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Singapore Malay Eye Study Ecosse L. Lamoureux; Seang-Mei Saw; Julian Thumboo; Hwee Lin Wee; Tin Aung; Paul Mitchell; Tien

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Y. Wong Author Affiliations Ecosse L. Lamoureux From the Centre for Eye Research Australia, the Royal Victorian Eye and Ear Hospital, University of Melbourne, East Melbourne, Australia;Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore National

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Eye Centre, Singapore; the Seang-Mei Saw Departments of Community, Occupational, and Family Medicine,Ophthalmology, Julian Thumboo Medicine, andDepartment of Rheumatology and Immunology, Singapore General Hospital, Singapore; and the Hwee Lin Wee Pharmacy, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore; theDepartment of Rheumatology and Immunology, Singapore General Hospital, Singapore; and the Tin Aung Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore National Eye Centre, anisometropia Singapore; theOphthalmology, Paul Mitchell Centres for Vision Research, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia. Tien Y. Wong From the Centre for Eye Research Australia, the Royal Victorian Eye and Ear Hospital, University of Melbourne, East Melbourne, Australia;Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore National Eye Centre, Singapore; theOphthalmology, Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science June 2009, Vol.50, 2614-2620. doi:10.1167/iovs.08-2164 Views Full Article Figures Tables PDF Share E-mail Facebook Twitter Google Digg Delicious CiteULike Tumblr StumbleUpon Tools Alerts User Alerts You are adding an alert for: The Impact of Corrected and Uncorrected Refractive Error on Visual Functioning: The Singapore Malay Eye Study You will receive an email whenever this article is corrected, updated, or cited in the literature. You can manage this and all other alerts in My Account The alert will be sent to: Confirm × This feature is available to Subscribers Only Sign In or Create an Account × Get Citation Citation Ecosse L. Lamoureux, Seang-Mei Saw, Julian Thumboo, Hwee Lin Wee, Tin Aung, Paul Mitchell, Tien Y. Wong; The Impact of Corrected and Uncorrected Refractive Error on Visual Functioning: The Singapore Malay Eye Study. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2009;5

Health Search databasePMCAll DatabasesAssemblyBioProjectBioSampleBioSystemsBooksClinVarCloneConserved DomainsdbGaPdbVarESTGeneGenomeGEO DataSetsGEO ProfilesGSSGTRHomoloGeneMedGenMeSHNCBI Web SiteNLM CatalogNucleotideOMIMPMCPopSetProbeProteinProtein ClustersPubChem BioAssayPubChem CompoundPubChem SubstancePubMedPubMed HealthSNPSRAStructureTaxonomyToolKitToolKitAllToolKitBookToolKitBookghUniGeneSearch presbyopia termSearch Advanced Journal list Help Journal ListIndian J Ophthalmolv.60(5); myopia Sep-Oct 2012PMC3491271 Indian J Ophthalmol. 2012 Sep-Oct; 60(5): 432–437. doi:  10.4103/0301-4738.100543PMCID: PMC3491271Uncorrected refractive errorsKovin S astigmatism Naidoo1,2 and Jyoti Jaggernath21International Center for Eyecare Education, 172 Umbilo Road, Durban, South Africa2African Vision Research Institute, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South AfricaCorrespondence http://iovs.arvojournals.org/article.aspx?articleid=2126119 to: Dr. Jyoti Jaggernath, 172 Umbilo Road, Durban, South Africa. E-mail: az.oc.acirfaeeci@irva.itoyjAuthor information ► Article notes ► Copyright and License information ►Received 2012 Mar 11; Accepted 2012 Aug 9.Copyright : © Indian Journal of OphthalmologyThis is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3491271/ Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 Unported, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.This article has been cited by other articles in PMC.AbstractGlobal estimates indicate that more than 2.3 billion people in the world suffer from poor vision due to refractive error; of which 670 million people are considered visually impaired because they do not have access to corrective treatment. Refractive errors, if uncorrected, results in an impaired quality of life for millions of people worldwide, irrespective of their age, sex and ethnicity. Over the past decade, a series of studies using a survey methodology, referred to as Refractive Error Study in Children (RESC), were performed in populations with different ethnic origins and cultural settings. These studies confirmed that the prevalence of uncorrected refractive errors is considerably high for children in low-and-middle-income

that results in light not being focused clearly on the retina. If an image comes into focus in front of the retina, http://www.w-e-h.org/uncorrected-refractive-error.html this is called myopia, and the person is nearsighted – able to http://www.lightfortheworld.nl/en/what-we-do/themes/prevention-of-blindness/refractive-errors see more clearly at near distance than at far distance. If the image comes into focus behind the retina, a condition called hyperopia, then the person is farsighted and able to see better at far distance than at near distance. Other types of refractive errors include astigmatism and refractive error presbyopia. Astigmatism represents "uneven" focusing in different planes of the eye. Presbyopia refers to the difficulty focusing up close and occurs with aging, resulting in the need for reading glasses in many people over the age of 40. The cause of refractive errors is unknown. What harm do refractive errors cause? To permit clear vision, myopia, hyperopia, and astigmatism must be uncorrected refractive error corrected, usually with eyeglasses. Uncorrected refractive error can result in visual impairment ranging from mild blurring to legal blindness, depending on the magnitude of the refractive error. If the refractive error of the two eyes is very different and this is not corrected in childhood, then permanent loss of vision, called amblyopia, can result. It has been estimated that more than a half of vision impairment, and about a quarter of legal blindness, is due to refractive error correctable with glasses. The number of people with poor vision due to uncorrected (or undercorrected) refractive error increases greatly in older age groups. In Australia this affects more than a third of the elderly folks who undergo an aged-care assessment. Particularly in older people, poor eyesight can lead to accidents, social withdrawal, and loss of independence. If you notice a change in your vision, contact an eye care professional for an eye exam. Causes of Vision Loss Age Related Macular Degeneration (AMD)Autoimmune DiseasesCataractDiabetic RetinopathyDry Eye DiseaseGlaucomaTrachoma and Other Infectious DiseasesUncorrected Refractive Error Copyright 2014 Women's Eye Health.org Scroll to Top

are the major cause of visual impairment and the second major cause of blindness. Refractive errors (RE) are disorders, not diseases, which can easily be corrected by a pair of spectacles. Although refractive errors are outlined as a priority eye condition by Vision 2020, often eye care providers focus more on cataract screenings etc. rather than providing comprehensive eye care services which include URE. To date poor access to screening facilities and spectacle dispensing services, especially in most sub-Saharan countries, has resulted in poor coverage suggesting that less than 10 to 20 % of those who require optical correction due to a clinically viable refractive error are actually receiving the needed services. Yet the correction of refractive errors with appropriate spectacles is among the most cost-effective interventions in eye health care. Prevalence and magnitude of refractive errors – impact on global health An estimated 153 million people are visually impaired due to URE and about 8 million people are regarded as being blind. Additionally, 517 million people have sight problems due to uncorrected presbyopia. An estimated 90% of people with uncorrected refractive errors live in low and middle income countries. URE are the 2nd major cause of blindness and the leading cause of visual impairment in the world. URE can hamper performance at school, reduce employability and productivity, and generally impair quality of life. Barriers Few adequately trained and qualified HR available able to provide refraction services Lack of refraction and diagnostic equipment for mid-level eye care personnel Limited resources available providing accessible and affordable optical services Low level of public awareness on eye health in general and refractive services in particular Negative cultural attitudes towards the use of specs (proud appearance, damaging sight etc.) Childhood blindness and school eye health Substantial refractive errors place a crucial burde

 

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