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# Propigation Of Error

propagation of error) is the effect of variables' uncertainties (or errors, more specifically random errors) on the uncertainty of a function based on them. When the variables are the values of experimental measurements they have uncertainties due to measurement limitations (e.g., instrument precision) which propagate to the combination of variables error propagation calculator in the function. The uncertainty u can be expressed in a number of ways. It may

## Error Propagation Physics

be defined by the absolute error Δx. Uncertainties can also be defined by the relative error (Δx)/x, which is usually written as a percentage. Most error propagation chemistry commonly, the uncertainty on a quantity is quantified in terms of the standard deviation, σ, the positive square root of variance, σ2. The value of a quantity and its error are then expressed as an interval x ± u. If

## Error Propagation Definition

the statistical probability distribution of the variable is known or can be assumed, it is possible to derive confidence limits to describe the region within which the true value of the variable may be found. For example, the 68% confidence limits for a one-dimensional variable belonging to a normal distribution are ± one standard deviation from the value, that is, there is approximately a 68% probability that the true value lies in the region x ± σ. If the uncertainties are error propagation square root correlated then covariance must be taken into account. Correlation can arise from two different sources. First, the measurement errors may be correlated. Second, when the underlying values are correlated across a population, the uncertainties in the group averages will be correlated.[1] Contents 1 Linear combinations 2 Non-linear combinations 2.1 Simplification 2.2 Example 2.3 Caveats and warnings 2.3.1 Reciprocal 2.3.2 Shifted reciprocal 3 Example formulas 4 Example calculations 4.1 Inverse tangent function 4.2 Resistance measurement 5 See also 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External links Linear combinations Let { f k ( x 1 , x 2 , … , x n ) } {\displaystyle \ ρ 5(x_ ρ 4,x_ ρ 3,\dots ,x_ ρ 2)\}} be a set of m functions which are linear combinations of n {\displaystyle n} variables x 1 , x 2 , … , x n {\displaystyle x_ σ 7,x_ σ 6,\dots ,x_ σ 5} with combination coefficients A k 1 , A k 2 , … , A k n , ( k = 1 … m ) {\displaystyle A_ σ 1,A_ σ 0,\dots ,A_ ρ 9,(k=1\dots m)} . f k = ∑ i n A k i x i  or  f = A x {\displaystyle f_ ρ 5=\sum _ ρ 4^ ρ 3A_ ρ 2x_ ρ 1{\text{ or }}\mathrm ρ 0 =\mathrm σ 9 \,} and let the variance-covariance matrix on x be denoted by Σ x {\displaystyle \mathrm {\Sigma ^ σ 1} \,} . 

or more quantities, each with their individual uncertainties, and then combine the information from these quantities in order to come up with a final result of our experiment. How can you state your answer for the combined result of these measurements and their

## Error Propagation Excel

uncertainties scientifically? The answer to this fairly common question depends on how the individual

## Error Propagation Inverse

measurements are combined in the result. We will treat each case separately: Addition of measured quantities If you have measured values for error propagation average the quantities X, Y, and Z, with uncertainties dX, dY, and dZ, and your final result, R, is the sum or difference of these quantities, then the uncertainty dR is: Here the upper equation is an https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Propagation_of_uncertainty approximation that can also serve as an upper bound for the error. Please note that the rule is the same for addition and subtraction of quantities. Example: Suppose we have measured the starting position as x1 = 9.3+-0.2 m and the finishing position as x2 = 14.4+-0.3 m. Then the displacement is: Dx = x2-x1 = 14.4 m - 9.3 m = 5.1 m and the error in the displacement is: (0.22 + 0.32)1/2 http://lectureonline.cl.msu.edu/~mmp/labs/error/e2.htm m = 0.36 m Multiplication of measured quantities In the same way as for sums and differences, we can also state the result for the case of multiplication and division: Again the upper line is an approximation and the lower line is the exact result for independent random uncertainties in the individual variables. And again please note that for the purpose of error calculation there is no difference between multiplication and division. Example: We have measured a displacement of x = 5.1+-0.4 m during a time of t = 0.4+-0.1 s. What is the average velocity and the error in the average velocity? v = x / t = 5.1 m / 0.4 s = 12.75 m/s and the uncertainty in the velocity is: dv = |v| [ (dx/x)2 + (dt/t)2 ]1/2 = 12.75 m/s [(0.4/5.1)2 + (0.1/0.4)2]1/2 = 3.34 m/s Multiplication with a constant What if you have measured the uncertainty in an observable X, and you need to multiply it with a constant that is known exactly? What is the error then? This is easy: just multiply the error in X with the absolute value of the constant, and this will give you the error in R: If you compare this to the above rule for multiplication of two quantities, you see that this

Gable's calendar Explanation In many instances, the quantity of interest is calculated from a combination of direct measurements. Two questions face us: Given the experimental uncertainty in the directly measured quantities, what is the uncertainty in the final result? In designing our experiment, where is effort best spent in improving the precision of the measurements? The approach is called propagation of error. The theoretical background may be found in Garland, Nibler & Shoemaker, ???, or the Wikipedia page (particularly the "simplification"). We will present the simplest cases you are likely to see; these must be adapted (obviously) to the specific form of the equations from which you derive your reported values from direct measurements. Addition and subtraction Note--$$S=√{S^2}$$ Formula for the result: $$x=a+b-c$$ x is the target value to report, a, b and c are measured values, each with some variance S2a, S2b, S2c. $$S_x=√{S^2_a+S^2_b+S^2_c}$$ (Sx can now be translated to a confidence interval by means previously discussed. Multiplication/division Formula for the result: $$x={ab}/c$$ As above, x is the target value to report, a, b and c are measured values, each with some variance S2a, S2b, S2c. $$S_x=x√{{(S_a/a)}^2+{(S_b/b)}^2+{(S_c/c)}^2}$$ Exponentials (no uncertainty in b) Formula for the result: $$x=a^b$$ $$S_x=xb(S_a/a)$$ Special cases: Antilog, base 10: $$x=10^a$$ $$S_x=2.303xS_a$$ Antilog, base e: $$x=e^a$$ $$S_x=xS_a$$ Logarithms Base 10: $$x=log{a}$$ $$S_x=0.434(S_a/a)$$ Base e: $$x=ln{a}$$ $$S_x={S_a/a}$$ Navigation CH361 Home Equations for Statistics Q-Test Table t-test Tables Linear Regression Propagation of Error Contact Info Do you notice something missing, broken, or out of whack? Maybe you just need a little extra help using the Brand. Either way we would love to hear from you. Copyright ©2014 Oregon State University Disclaimer Page content is the responsibility of Prof. Kevin P. Gable kevin.gable@oregonstate.edu 153 Gilbert Hall Oregon State University Corvallis OR 97331 Last updated 8/29/2014

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covariance error propagation

covariance error propagation p The approach to uncertainty analysis that has been followed up to this point in the discussion has been what is called a top-down approach covariance propagation and next best view planning for d reconstruction Uncertainty components are estimated from direct repetitions of the measurement Standard Error Covariance result To contrast this with a propagation of error approach consider the simple example where error propagation standard deviation we estimate the area of a rectangle from replicate measurements of length and width The area area length cdot width can be computed error propagation formula from each replicate The

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counting error propagation p change in the value of that quantity Results are is obtained by mathematical operations on the data and small changes Error Propagation Example in any data quantity can affect the value of a result We say error propagation division that errors in the data propagate through the calculations to produce error in the result MAXIMUM ERROR We error propagation physics first consider how data errors propagate through calculations to affect error limits or maximum error of results It's easiest to first consider determinate errors which have explicit sign This leads to useful Error Propagation Calculus rules

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correlated uncorrelated error

correlated uncorrelated error p propagation of error is the effect of variables' uncertainties or errors more specifically random errors on the uncertainty of a function based correlated and uncorrelated subqueries on them When the variables are the values of experimental Correlated And Uncorrelated Noise measurements they have uncertainties due to measurement limitations e g instrument precision which propagate to the combination difference between correlated and uncorrelated of variables in the function The uncertainty u can be expressed in a number of ways It may be defined by the absolute error x Uncertainties can Error Propagation Rules also be defined by

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correlation error propagation

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compound error wiki

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compound error formula

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compound error calculation p or more quantities each with their individual uncertainties and then combine the information from these quantities in order to come up with a final result of our experiment How can you state your answer for the combined result of these measurements and compound calculation formula their uncertainties scientifically The answer to this fairly common question depends on how the Compounding Rate Calculator individual measurements are combined in the result We will treat each case separately Addition of measured quantities If you have measured values savings interest rate calculator compounded daily for the quantities X Y and

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calculate error propagation excel

calculate error propagation excel p a desired quantity can be found directly from a single measurement then the uncertainty in the quantity is completely determined by the precision of the measurement It is not error propagation in excel so simple however when a quantity must be calculated from two or more error propagation excel spreadsheet measurements each with their own uncertainty In this case the precision of the final result depends on the uncertainties in uncertainty symbol in excel each of the measurements that went into calculating it In other words uncertainty is always present and a measurement s uncertainty

calculate error addition multiplication p or more quantities each with their individual uncertainties and then combine the information from these quantities in order to come up with a final result of our experiment How can you state your answer for the combined result of these measurements and their uncertainties scientifically The answer to this fairly common Error Propagation Calculator question depends on how the individual measurements are combined in the result We will treat each error propagation physics case separately Addition of measured quantities If you have measured values for the quantities X Y and Z with uncertainties dX dY

calculating error propagation multiplication

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calculating error when dividing by constant

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calculation of error propagation

calculation of error propagation p or more quantities each with their individual uncertainties and then combine the information from these quantities in order to come up with a final result of our experiment How can you state your answer for the combined result of these measurements and their uncertainties law of propagation of errors scientifically The answer to this fairly common question depends on how the individual measurements are propagation of error explained combined in the result We will treat each case separately Addition of measured quantities If you have measured values for the quantities how to find propagated error

calculator error propagation

calculator error propagation p known or estimated uncertainties The calculations may involve algebraic operations error propagation formula such as Z X Y Z Error Propagation Rules X - Y Z X x Y Z X Y error propagation division Z XY or mathematical functions of the type Z X Z ln X Z log X Z X uncertainty calculator Z eX Z sqrt X If uncertainties dX dY are provided for the input quantities X Y the program will perform the operation or function to calculate the answer Z and will also calculate the uncertainty in the answer dZ The

calculus method error propagation

calculus error propagation

calculation error propagation

calculation error propagation p propagation of error is the effect of variables' uncertainties or errors more specifically random errors on the uncertainty of a function based on them When the variables are the values of calculating error analysis experimental measurements they have uncertainties due to measurement limitations e g instrument precision which calculating standard error propagate to the combination of variables in the function The uncertainty u can be expressed in a number of Standard Deviation Propagation ways It may be defined by the absolute error x Uncertainties can also be defined by the relative error x x which is

coefficient of variation error propagation

coefficient of variation error propagation p propagation of error is the effect of variables' uncertainties or errors more specifically random errors on the uncertainty of a function based on them When the variables are the values of experimental measurements they have uncertainties due to measurement limitations e g instrument precision which propagate to the standard error and coefficient of variation combination of variables in the function The uncertainty u can be expressed in a number of coefficient of variation standard deviation ways It may be defined by the absolute error x Uncertainties can also be defined by the relative error

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book error propagation

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dependent error propagation

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derivative error propagation

derivative error propagation p propagation of error is the effect of variables' uncertainties or errors more specifically random errors on the uncertainty of a function based on them When the variables Error Propagation Equation are the values of experimental measurements they have uncertainties due to error propagation law measurement limitations e g instrument precision which propagate to the combination of variables in the function The uncertainty u Error Propagation Function can be expressed in a number of ways It may be defined by the absolute error x Uncertainties can also be defined by the relative error x x which method

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derivation of error propagation formula

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derivative method error propagation

derivative method error propagation p or more quantities each with their individual uncertainties and then combine the information from these quantities in order to come up with a final result of our experiment How can you state Partial Derivative Error Propagation your answer for the combined result of these measurements and their uncertainties error propagation using partial derivatives scientifically The answer to this fairly common question depends on how the individual measurements are combined in the result Error Propagation In Numerical Methods We will treat each case separately Addition of measured quantities If you have measured values for the quantities

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deviation relative error

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difference between addition in quadrature and error propagation p or more quantities each with their individual uncertainties and then combine the information from these quantities in order to come up with a final result of our experiment How can you state your answer for the combined result of these measurements and propagation of error division their uncertainties scientifically The answer to this fairly common question depends on how the individual Error Propagation Formula Physics measurements are combined in the result We will treat each case separately Addition of measured quantities If you have measured values for Error Propagation Square Root

difference between error analysis and error propagation

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difference over sum error

difference over sum error p Euclidean geometry and other inner-product spaces See also Statistics edit For partitioning of variance see Partition of sums of squares For the sum of squared deviations see Least squares For Difference Over Sum Normalization the sum of squared differences see Mean squared error For the sum of sum of error squared squared error see Residual sum of squares For the sum of squares due to lack of fit see Lack-of-fit sum Sum Error In Excel of squares For sums of squares relating to model predictions see Explained sum of squares For sums of squares relating

difference error propagation

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dividing an error by a constant

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dividing error calculation p or more quantities each with their individual uncertainties and then combine the information from these quantities in order to come up with a final result of our experiment How can you state your answer dividing error by a constant for the combined result of these measurements and their uncertainties scientifically The calculating errors and uncertainties answer to this fairly common question depends on how the individual measurements are combined in the result We will treat Propagation Of Error Division each case separately Addition of measured quantities If you have measured values for the quantities X Y

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division propagation error p or more quantities each with their individual uncertainties and then combine the information from these quantities in order to come up with a final result of our experiment How can you state your answer for the combined result of these measurements and their uncertainties scientifically The error propagation calculator answer to this fairly common question depends on how the individual measurements are combined in the error propagation rules result We will treat each case separately Addition of measured quantities If you have measured values for the quantities X Y and Z Error Propagation Division By A

does error propagation mean

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equation error propagation

equation error propagation p propagation of error is the effect of variables' uncertainties or errors more specifically random errors on the uncertainty of a function based on them When the variables are the values of experimental measurements they have uncertainties due to measurement limitations e g instrument error propagation formula precision which propagate to the combination of variables in the function The uncertainty u can error propagation calculator be expressed in a number of ways It may be defined by the absolute error x Uncertainties can also be defined by Error Propagation Example the relative error x x which is

3296 server error propagation

server error propagation p Forums Devshare Challenge Awards Advisory Councils Social Groups Calendar Resources Documentation Blog OpenText Analytics BIRT Developer Center Download BIRT Developer Center rarr BIRT Forums rarr Working with BIRT iServer Javascript Disabled Detected You propagation of error division currently have javascript disabled Several functions may not work Please re-enable javascript to error propagation formula physics access full functionality Cannot get report parameters for the specified file Started By RajKal Mar error propagation square root PM Please log in to reply replies to this topic RajKal RajKal Junior Member Members posts Posted March - PM deployed a report

additive error calculations p of Error least count b Estimation c Average Deviation d Conflicts e Standard Error in the Mean What does uncertainty tell me Range addition error propagation of possible values Relative and Absolute error Propagation of errors Additive Measure a add subtract b multiply divide c powers d mixtures of - e other functions Rounding answers properly additive equation Significant figures Problems to try Glossary of terms all terms that are bold face and underlined Part II Graphing Part III The Vernier Caliper In this manual Propagation Of Error Division there will be problems for you to

algebraic error propagation

algebraic error propagation p equations in this document used the SYMBOL TTF font Not all computers and browsers supported that font so this has been propagation of error division re-edited to make it more browser friendly If any errors remain Error Propagation Formula Physics please let me know One of the standard notations for expressing a quantity with error is x error propagation square root plusmn Delta x In some cases I find it more convenient to use upper case letters for measured quantities and lower case for their errors A plusmn a Error Propagation Average The notation X represents

analysis of error propagation

analysis of error propagation p propagation of error is the effect of variables' uncertainties or errors more specifically random errors on the uncertainty of a function based on them When the variables are the values of experimental measurements they error propagation calculator have uncertainties due to measurement limitations e g instrument precision which propagate to the Error Analysis Equation combination of variables in the function The uncertainty u can be expressed in a number of ways It may be Error Propagation For Addition defined by the absolute error x Uncertainties can also be defined by the relative error x x

angle error propagation

angle error propagation p uncertainty of an answer obtained from a calculation Every time data are measured there is an uncertainty associated with that measurement Refer to guide to Measurement and Uncertainty If these measurements used in your calculation have some uncertainty associated with them then the final answer will error propagation example of course have some level of uncertainty For instance in lab you might measure an object's Error Propagation Division position at different times in order to find the object's average velocity Since both distance and time measurements have uncertainties associated with them those error propagation physics uncertainties

antilog error propagation

antilog error propagation p Gable's calendar Explanation In many instances the quantity of interest is calculated from a combination of direct measurements Two questions face error propagation natural log us Given the experimental uncertainty in the directly measured quantities what error propagation ln is the uncertainty in the final result In designing our experiment where is effort best spent logarithmic error calculation in improving the precision of the measurements The approach is called propagation of error The theoretical background may be found in Garland Nibler Shoemaker or the compound error definition Wikipedia page particularly the simplification We will present the

antilog error

antilog error p Gable's calendar Explanation In many instances the quantity of interest is calculated from a combination of direct measurements Two questions face error propagation natural log us Given the experimental uncertainty in the directly measured quantities what Error Propagation Ln is the uncertainty in the final result In designing our experiment where is effort best spent Logarithmic Error Calculation in improving the precision of the measurements The approach is called propagation of error The theoretical background may be found in Garland Nibler Shoemaker or the Compound Error Definition Wikipedia page particularly the simplification We will present the simplest

appendix v. uncertainties and error propagation

appendix v uncertainties and error propagation p sesi nRegistrarseLibrosAudio librosC micsPartituras You're Reading a Free Preview Pages to are not shown in this Uncertainty Error Propagation Calculator preview Buy the Full Version Acerca deBuscar uncertainty error analysis librosDirectorio del sitioAcerca de ScribdConoce al equipoNuestro blog nase a nuestro equipo Cont ctenosAsociados de Uncertainty Standard Error negociosEditoresDesarrolladores APILegalT rminosPrivacidadCopyrightAsistenciaAyudaPreguntas frecuentesAccesibilidadPrensaAyuda de compraAdChoicesSuscripcionesReg strese hoyInvitar amigosObsequiosCopyright copy Scribd Inc T rminos de servicio Accesibilidad Privacidad Sitio m vil Idioma del sitio error propagation addition English Espa ol Portugu s DeutschFran aisTurkce Ti ng vi tJ zyk polskiBahasa indonesiaError Propagation and Analysis por

arctan error propagation

arctan error propagation p p p p p p p p

average error propagation

average error propagation p of Error least count b Estimation c Average Deviation d Conflicts e Standard Error in the Mean What does uncertainty tell me Range of possible values Relative and Absolute error Propagation of errors a add subtract how to find error propagation b multiply divide c powers d mixtures of - e other functions Rounding answers propagation of error mean properly Significant figures Problems to try Glossary of terms all terms that are bold face and underlined Part II propagation of error calculator Graphing Part III The Vernier Caliper In this manual there will be problems for

averaging error propagation

averaging error propagation p of Error least count b Estimation c Average Deviation d Conflicts e Standard Error in the Mean What does uncertainty tell me Range of possible values error propagation average standard deviation Relative and Absolute error Propagation of errors a add subtract b multiply divide Error Propagation Mean c powers d mixtures of - e other functions Rounding answers properly Significant figures Problems to uncertainty error propagation calculator try Glossary of terms all terms that are bold face and underlined Part II Graphing Part III The Vernier Caliper In this manual there will be problems for you

back error propagation simulator

back error propagation simulator p input layer hidden or middle layer s one in this case and an output layer Figure The network is fully connected from one layer to the next but lacks any connectivity between neurons belonging to Wifi Propagation Simulator the same layer or back to previous layers Figure The Backpropagation error propagation example network architecture is made of an input layer connected to a hidden layer that is then connected to an error propagation division output layer Units are fully connected between layers without any interconnection to other units in the same layer The BackPropagation algorithm

back error propagation

back error propagation p a playout is propagated up the search tree in Monte Carlo tree search This article has multiple issues Please help improve it or discuss Backpropagation these issues on the talk page Learn how and when to remove error propagation example these template messages This article may be expanded with text translated from the corresponding article in German error propagation division March Click show for important translation instructions View a machine-translated version of the German article Google's machine translation is a useful starting point for translations but translators Error Propagation Physics must revise errors as necessary and

back-error propagation networks

back-error propagation networks p a playout is propagated up the search tree in Monte Carlo tree search This article has error propagation example multiple issues Please help improve it or discuss these issues error propagation division on the talk page Learn how and when to remove these template messages This article error propagation physics may be expanded with text translated from the corresponding article in German March Click show for important translation instructions View a machine-translated version Error Propagation Calculus of the German article Google's machine translation is a useful starting point for translations but translators must revise errors as

basic error propagation rules

basic error propagation rules p or more quantities each with their individual uncertainties and then combine the information from these quantities in order to come up with a final result of our experiment How can you state your answer for the combined result of these measurements and their uncertainties scientifically The answer to this fairly common question depends on how the individual measurements error propagation rules exponents are combined in the result We will treat each case separately Addition of measured quantities If you have error propagation rules division measured values for the quantities X Y and Z with uncertainties

basic error propagation

basic error propagation p The approach to uncertainty analysis that has been followed up to this point in the discussion has been what is called a top-down approach Uncertainty components are estimated from direct repetitions of the measurement result To contrast this general formula for propagation of error with a propagation of error approach consider the simple example where we rules for the propagation of uncertainty for random error estimate the area of a rectangle from replicate measurements of length and width The area area length cdot Uncertainty Propagation width can be computed from each replicate The standard deviation of

basic error analysis formula

basic error analysis formula p Conversions measured value actual accepted or true value Solution percent error error analysis formula physics NOT CALCULATED Change Equation Variable Select to solve for Error Propagation Formula a different unknown percent error calculatorRich internet application version of the percent error percent error formula calculator Solve for percent error Solve for the actual value This is also called the accepted experimental or true value Note due Error Propagation Formula Example to the absolute value in the actual equation above there are two value Solve for the measured or observed value Note due to the absolute value

bayesian error propagation

bayesian error propagation p Bioassays Resources DNA RNABLAST Basic Local asymmetric error Alignment Search Tool BLAST Stand-alone E-UtilitiesGenBankGenBank BankItGenBank SequinGenBank Asymmetric Error Propagation tbl asnGenome WorkbenchInfluenza VirusNucleotide DatabasePopSetPrimer-BLASTProSplignReference Sequence RefSeq RefSeqGeneSequence Read Archive SRA SplignTrace ArchiveUniGeneAll Error Propagation Asymmetric Error Bars DNA RNA Resources Data SoftwareBLAST Basic Local Alignment Search Tool BLAST Stand-alone Cn DConserved Domain Search Service Combining Asymmetric Errors CD Search E-UtilitiesGenBank BankItGenBank SequinGenBank tbl asnGenome ProtMapGenome WorkbenchPrimer-BLASTProSplignPubChem Structure SearchSNP Submission ToolSplignVector Alignment Search Tool VAST All Data Software Resources Domains StructuresBioSystemsCn DConserved Domain Database CDD Conserved Domain Search Service CD Search Structure Molecular Modeling asymmetric standard deviation