# drawing bar graphs error bars

bars? Say that you were looking at writing scores broken down by race and ses. You might want to graph the mean and confidence interval for each group using a bar chart with error bars as illustrated below. This FAQ shows how you drawing bar graphs worksheet can make a graph like this, building it up step by step. First, lets get the data

## Bar Graphs With Error Bars Excel

file we will be using. use http://www.ats.ucla.edu/stat/stata/notes/hsb2, clear Now, let's use the collapse command to make the mean and standard deviation by race and ses. collapse bar graphs with error bars in r (mean) meanwrite= write (sd) sdwrite=write (count) n=write, by(race ses) Now, let's make the upper and lower values of the confidence interval. generate hiwrite = meanwrite + invttail(n-1,0.025)*(sdwrite / sqrt(n)) generate lowrite = meanwrite - invttail(n-1,0.025)*(sdwrite / sqrt(n)) Now we are ready to## Bar Graphs With Error Bars Matlab

make a bar graph of the data The graph bar command makes a pretty good bar graph. graph bar meanwrite, over(race) over(ses) We can make the graph look a bit prettier by adding the asyvars option as shown below. graph bar meanwrite, over(race) over(ses) asyvars But, this graph does not have the error bars in it. Unfortunately, as nice as the graph bar command is, it does not permit error bars. However, we can make a twoway graph that has error bars as shown below. Unfortunately, how to read bar graphs with error bars this graph is not as attractive as the graph from graph bar. graph twoway (bar meanwrite race) (rcap hiwrite lowrite race), by(ses) So, we have a conundrum. The graph bar command will make a lovely bar graph, but will not support error bars. The twoway bar command makes lovely error bars, but it does not resemble the nice graph that we liked from the graph bar command. However, we can finesse the twoway bar command to make a graph that resembles the graph bar command and then combine that with error bars. Here is a step by step process.First, we will make a variable sesrace that will be a single variable that contains the ses and race information. Note how sesrace has a gap between the levels of ses (at 5 and 10). generate sesrace = race if ses == 1 replace sesrace = race+5 if ses == 2 replace sesrace = race+10 if ses == 3 sort sesrace list sesrace ses race, sepby(ses) +---------------------------------+ | sesrace ses race | |---------------------------------| 1. | 1 low hispanic | 2. | 2 low asian | 3. | 3 low african-amer | 4. | 4 low white | |---------------------------------| 5. | 6 middle hispanic | 6. | 7 middle asian | 7. | 8 middle african-amer | 8. | 9 middle white | |---------------------------------| 9. | 11 high hispanic | 10. | 12 high asian | 11. | 13 high african-amer | 12. | 14 high white | +---------------------------------+ Now, we will make a graph using graerror, or uncertainty in a reported measurement. They give a general idea of how precise a

## Error Bars Line Graphs

measurement is, or conversely, how far from the reported value the## Bar Graph With Error Bars Maker

true (error free) value might be. Error bars often represent one standard deviation of uncertainty, one standard bar graph with error bars excel mac error, or a certain confidence interval (e.g., a 95% interval). These quantities are not the same and so the measure selected should be stated explicitly in the graph http://www.ats.ucla.edu/stat/stata/faq/barcap.htm or supporting text. Error bars can be used to compare visually two quantities if various other conditions hold. This can determine whether differences are statistically significant. Error bars can also suggest goodness of fit of a given function, i.e., how well the function describes the data. Scientific papers in the experimental sciences are expected to https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Error_bar include error bars on all graphs, though the practice differs somewhat between sciences, and each journal will have its own house style. It has also been shown that error bars can be used as a direct manipulation interface for controlling probabilistic algorithms for approximate computation.[1] Error bars can also be expressed in a plus-minus sign (±), plus the upper limit of the error and minus the lower limit of the error.[2] See also[edit] Box plot Confidence interval Graphs Model selection Significant figures References[edit] ^ Sarkar, A; Blackwell, A; Jamnik, M; Spott, M (2015). "Interaction with uncertainty in visualisations" (PDF). 17th Eurographics/IEEE VGTC Conference on Visualization, 2015. doi:10.2312/eurovisshort.20151138. ^ Brown, George W. (1982), "Standard Deviation, Standard Error: Which 'Standard' Should We Use?", American Journal of Diseases of Children, 136 (10): 937–941, doi:10.1001/archpedi.1982.03970460067015. This statistics-related article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it. v t e Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Error_bar&oldid=724045548" Categories: Statistical charts and diagramsStatistics stubsHidden categories: All stub articles Navigation menu Personal tools Notor remove error bars in a chart Applies To: Excel 2007, Word 2007, Outlook 2007, PowerPoint 2007, Less Applies To: Excel 2007 , Word 2007 , Outlook 2007 , PowerPoint 2007 , More... Which version do I have? More... Error bars express potential error amounts that are graphically relative to each https://support.office.com/en-us/article/Add-change-or-remove-error-bars-in-a-chart-e6d12c87-8533-4cd6-a3f5-864049a145f0 data point or data marker in a data series. For example, you could show 5 percent positive and negative potential error amounts in the results of a scientific experiment: You can add error bars to data series in a 2-D area, bar, column, line, xy (scatter), and bubble charts. For xy (scatter) and bubble charts, you can display error bars for the x values, the y values, or both. After you add error bars to a chart, you can change the error bars display and error amount options of the error bars as needed. You can also remove error bars. What do you want to do? Review equations for calculating error amounts Add error bars Change the display of error bars Change the error amount options Remove error bars Review equations for calculating error amounts In Excel, you can display error bars that use a standard error amount, a percentage of the value (5%), or a standard deviation. Standard Error and Standard Deviation use with error bars the following equations to calculate the error amounts that are shown on the chart. This option Uses this equation Where Standard Error s = series number i = point number in series s m = number of series for point y in chart n = number of points in each series yis = data value of series s and the ith point ny = total number of data values in all series Standard Deviation s = series number i = point number in series s m = number of series for point y in chart n = number of points in each series yis = data value of series s and the ith point ny = total number of data values in all series M = arithmetic mean Top of Page Add error bars On 2-D area, bar, column, line, xy (scatter), or bubble chart, do one of the following: To add error bars to all data series in the chart, click the chart area. To add error bars to a selected data point or data series, click the data point or data series that you want, or do the following to select it from a list of chart elements: Click anywhere in the chart. This displays the Chart Tools, adding the Design, Layout, and Format tabs. On the Format tab, in the Current Selection group, click the arrow next to the Chart Elements box, and then click the chart ele